On October 28, 1969, West Germans heard their new Chancellor’s first address, and with it the beginnings of a new foreign policy: Ostpolitik. Radically reversing previous policies such as non-recognition of the GDR and the Hallstein Doctrine, Ostpolitik called for a normalization of diplomatic and economic ties with countries in the Eastern Bloc.
Emilio Contreras – In the past few centuries, the United States has been a hegemonic power in its hemisphere, exerting domestic control over its Latin American neighbors. Like many of its Latin American neighbors, the island of Cuba shared a
Anela Mangum – By late 1867, Japan’s centuries-old Tokugawa government was losing ground. In November, Tokugawa Yoshinobu resigned from his position as shogun. While Yoshinobu hoped to maintain his political prestige, samurai from the outer regions of Japan led a
Emilio Contreras – In Latin America, Africans played a major role in the formation of society. Still, their history is not as well known as it should be. From 1492 to 1900, a total of 12 to 20 million
Abstract: The replacement of trolley systems by buses, a process which fundamentally reshaped America’s urban landscape, has long been viewed as inevitable. However, in this paper, I look beyond arguments of financial necessity to show that, in New Haven, Connecticut,