Abstract: In a review of Will and Ariel Durant’s 11-volume series The Story of Civilization, one critic remarked: “What is wrong with our educational system when more people learn “history” from one book by Will Durant than from a whole
Abstract: Before the invention of the artificial sponge, sea sponges were an industrial and household necessity throughout the United States and Europe, where they were put to purposes ranging from surgery to automobile manufacturing and military maintenance. As industrial demand
Abstract: While Central Asia was seen as a wasteland of “backwardness” in the 1910s, it had become a collection of politically significant nations within the USSR only a few decades later. This paper argues that the productivity campaigns of the Soviet Union were essential in expanding opportunities for the indigenous in Central Asia.
(Volume III, Issue 2)
Abstract: While traditional accounts of the Haussmann reconstruction of Paris allege that the reconstruction was completed for military reasons, namely to ensure government control of the city, this paper proposes a second cause: sanitation. By examining the prints of photographer Felix Nadar, it becomes obvious that sanitation played a key role in the Haussman reconstruction.
Abstract: The period of socialist rule in Vienna, Austria, in the 1920s has been dubbed “Red Vienna.” The socialist city government’s longest-lasting legacy in the Austrian capital is the gemeindebauten, or large public housing projects built to house refugees flowing